Project coordinator in the research project "Hearing in Penguins", German Museum of Oceanographic


Since 2013



Research associate (Main topics: (1) Thermal conditions and polymorphism in Gouldian finches, (2) Thermal conditions, physiology, phenotypic plasticity and dispersal capacity in butterflies), University of Greifswald, research group: Prof. K Fischer




Von Humboldt post-doctoral fellow (Topic: Oxidative status and feeding behaviour in Gouldian finches), University of Freiburg, research group: Dr. HM Schaefer


Post-doctoral associate (Topic: neuroethology and feeding ecology of Lincoln’s sparrows), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA, research group: Prof. Dr. KW Sockmann


Ph.D. in behavioural ecology/ecophysiology (Title: Response to breeding constraints in Adélie penguins), University of Strasbourg, France, Advisor: Dr. A. Ancel


Volunteer in Adélie Land, Antarctica, French Polar Institut Paul Emile Victor, Advisor: Dr. A. Ancel


Veterinary doctorate (Title: Role of beta-3-adrenoceptors in heart failure), National Veterinary School of Nantes, France


Master in cardiophysiology, University of Nantes, Institut du Thorax, France


Bachelor in Biology - Zoology, University of Le Havre, University of Rennes, France


  • Oxidative status
  • Telomeres
  • Stress hormones
  • Reproductive hormones

Feeding ecology

  • Stable isotope analyses
  • Data loggers
  • Dietary antioxidants

Ecology & evolution

Experimental design

Climate Change


Peer reviewed

Beaulieu M, Dähne M, Köpp J, Marciau C, Kato A, Ropert-Coudert Y, Raclot T (2021): Exploring the interplay between nest vocalizations and foraging behaviour in breeding birds. Animal Behaviour (180) Online

Fischer K, Kreyling J, Beaulieu M, Beil M, Bog M, Bonte D, Holm S, Knoblauch S, Koch D, Muffler L, Mouginot P, Paulinich M, Scheepens N, Schiemann R, Schmeddes J, Schnittler M, Uhl G, van der Maaten-Theunissen M, Weier J, Wilmking M, Weigel R, Giennap P (2021): Species-specific effects of thermal stress on the expression of genetic variation across a diverse group of plant and animal taxa under experimental conditions. Heredity 126: 23-37 Online

Fragueira R, Helfenstein F, Fischer K Beaulieu M (accepted): Birds of different morphs use different reproductive strategies to achieve similar reproductive performance following exposure to a heatwave. Journal of Animal Ecology.

Neu A, Beaulieu M, Fischer K, (2021): Limits on optimal decision making: host plant selection is not altered under challenging conditions in a tropical butterfly. Animal Behaviour (174) 87–95. Online

Günter F, Beaulieu M, Freiberg KF, Toshkova N, Welzel I, Žagar A, Fischer K (2020): Genotype-environment interactions rule the response of a widespread butterfly to temperature variation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 33: 920-929. Online

Günter F, Beaulieu M, Toshkova N, Fischer K (2020): Clinal variation in investment into reproduction versus maintenance suggests a pace-of-life syndrom in a widespread butterfly. Oecologia 193: 1011-1020. Online

Lorenz I, Fischer K, Beaulieu M (2020) Antioxidant asymmetry and acclimation temperature independently reflect fight outcome in male crickets. Animal Behaviour 167: 221-231.

Mouginot P, Uhl G, Toshkova N, Beaulieu M (2020): Differential oxidative costs of locomotory and genital damage in an orb-weaving spider. Journal of Experimental Biology 223: jeb219758. Online

Beaulieu M, Touzalin F, Dool S, Teeling EC, Puechmaille SP (2020) Timescale and colony dependent relationships between temperature anomalies and plasma oxidative markers in a long-lived bat species. Conservation Physiology 8: coaa083

Charpentier MJE, Boundenga L, Beaulieu M, Dibakou SE, Arnathau C, Sidobre C, Willaume E, Mercier-Delarue S, Simon F, Rougeron V, Prugnolle F. 2019. A longitudinal molecular study of the ecology of malaria infections in free-ranging mandrills. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 10: 341-251

Fragueira R, Verhulst S, Beaulieu M. 2019. Morph- and sex-specific effects of challenging conditions on maintenance parameters in Gouldian finches. Journal of Experimental Biology 222, jeb196030

Fragueira R, Beaulieu M. 2019. Red does not always outperform black. Morph-specific behavioral variation in response to environmental changes. Animal Behaviour 148: 81-91

Günter F, Beaulieu M, Brunetti M, Lange L, Schmitz Ornés A, Fischer K. 2019. Latitudinal and altitudinal variation in ecologically important traits in a widespread butterfly. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 128: 742-755


Le Guen C, Kato A, Raymond B, Barbraud C, Beaulieu M, Bost CA, MacIntosh AJJ, Meyer X, Raclot T, Sumner M, Takahashi A, Thiebot JB, Ropert-Coudert Y (2018) Reproductive performance and diving behaviour share a common sea-ice optimum in Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). Global Change Biology 24:5304-5317

Geiger RE, Beaulieu M, Franke K, Fischer K. 2018. High male density favours maintenance over reproduction in a butterfly. Behavioral Ecology 29:1031-1037.


Beaulieu M, Ancel A, Chastel O, Criscuolo F, Raclot T. 2017. Socially-induced variation in physiological mediators of parental care in a colonial bird. Hormones & Behavior 93: 39-46. Cover of the journal.

Beaulieu M, Benoit L, Abaga S, Kappeler PM, Charpentier MJE. 2017. Mind the cell: seasonal variation in telomere length mirrors changes in leukocyte profile. Molecular Ecology 26: 5603-5613

Beaulieu M, Franke K, Fischer K. 2017. Feeding on ripening and over-ripening fruit: interactions between sugar, alcohol and polyphenol contents in a tropical butterfly. Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 3127-3134

Ancel A, Cristofari R , Trathan P, Gilbert C, Fretwell P, Beaulieu M. 2017. Looking for new emperor penguin colonies? Filling the gaps. Global Ecology & Conservation 9: 171-179

Poisbleau M, Beaulieu M, Dehnhard N, Demongin L, Lepoint G, Sturaro N, Eens M. 2017. Extreme intra-clutch egg size dimorphism is not coupled with corresponding antioxidant and isotopic differences between eggs. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology - Part A 205: 77-85


Beaulieu M. 2016. A bird in the house: the challenge of being ecologically relevant in captivity. Frontiers in Ecology & Evolution 4: 141

Beaulieu M, Bischofberger I , Lorenz I, Scheelen L, Fischer K. 2016. Reproducing butterflies do not increase antioxidant intake when they could benefit from them. Biology Letters 12: 20150941. Cover of the journal


Ancel A, Gilbert C, Poulin N, Beaulieu M, Thierry B. 2015. New insights into the huddling patterns of emperor penguins. Animal Behaviour 110: 91-98. Highlighted by BBC Earth, Science News

Beaulieu M, Geiger RE , Reim E, Zielke L , Fischer K. 2015. Reproduction alters oxidative status when it is traded-off against survival. Evolution 69: 1786-1796

Beaulieu M, Gillen E, Hahn S , Pape JM , Fischer K. 2015. Behavioural antioxidant strategies to cope with high temperatures: a study in a tropical butterfly. Animal Behaviour 109: 89-99

Beaulieu M, González Acuña D, Thierry AM , Polito MJ. 2015. Relationships between isotopic values and oxidative status: insights from populations of Gentoo penguins. Oecologia 177: 1211-1220

Kehl T, Beaulieu M, Kehl A , Fischer K. 2015. Old male sex: large ejaculate, many sperm but few offspring. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 69: 1543-1552

Speakman JR, Blount JD, Bronikowski AM, Buffenstein R, Isaksson C, Kirkwood TB, Monaghan P, Ozanne SE, Beaulieu M, Briga M, Carr S, Christensen L, Cocheme HM, Cram DL, Dantzer B, Harper JM, Jurk D, King A, Noguera JC, Salin K, Sild E, Simons M, Smith S, Stier A, Tobler M, Vitikainen E, Peaker M, Selman C. 2015. Oxidative stress and life-histories: unresolved issues and current needs. Ecology & Evolution 5: 5745-5757


Beaulieu M, Costantini D. 2014. Biomarkers of oxidative status: missing tools in conservation physiology. Conservation Physiology 2: cou14

Beaulieu M, Mboumba S, Willaume E, Kappeler PM, Charpentier MJE 2014 The oxidative cost of unstable social dominance. Journal of Experimental Biology 217: 2629-2632. Cover of the journal

Beaulieu M, Haas A , Schaefer HM. 2014. Self-supplementation and effects of dietary antioxidants during acute thermal stress. Journal of Experimental Biology 217: 370-375

Beaulieu M, Schaefer HM. 2014. The proper time for antioxidant consumption. Physiology & Behavior 128: 54-59

Beaulieu M, Sockman KW. 2014. Comparison of optimal foraging versus life-history decisions during nestling care through stable isotope analysis in Lincoln’s Sparrow families. Ibis 156: 424-432

Lyons SM, Beaulieu M, Sockman KW. 2014. Contrast influences female attraction to performance-based sexual signals in a songbird. Biology Letters 10: 20140588. Highlighted in ‘ScienceNews, ‘Phys.org’


Ancel A, Beaulieu M, Gilbert C. 2013. The different breeding strategies of penguins: a review. Comptes-Rendus Biologie 336: 1-12

Ancel A, Gilbert C, Beaulieu M. 2013. The long engagement of the emperor penguin. Polar Biology 36: 573-577

Beaulieu M, Schaefer HM. 2013. Rethinking the role of dietary antioxidants through the lens of self-medication. Animal Behaviour 86: 17-24

Beaulieu M, Thierry AM, González Acuña D, Polito MJ . 2013. Integrating oxidative ecology into conservation physiology. Conservation Physiology 1: cot004

Gerum RC, Zitterbart DP, Metzner C, Beaulieu M, Ancel A, Fabry B. 2013. The origin of travelling waves in emperor penguin huddles. New Journal of Physics 15: 125022. Highlighted in ‘New Scientist’, ‘NBC News’, ‘Daily Mail’, ‘The Times’, ‘The Independent’, ‘Wired’, ‘Le Monde’, Highlights of 2013 in New Journal of Physics


Beaulieu M, Sockman KW. 2012. One meadow for two sparrows: resource partitioning in a high elevation habitat. Oecologia 170: 529-540

Beaulieu M, Sockman KW. 2012. Song in the cold is ‘hot’: memory of and preference for sexual signals perceived under thermal challenge. Biology Letters 8: 751-753. Highlighted in ‘Outside JEB’ (Journal of Experimental Biology), ‘Die Zeit’, ‘Discover Magazine’,  ‘The Wall Street Journal’, ‘Wissenschaft Aktuell’

Matragrano LL , Beaulieu M, Phillip JO, Rae AI, Sanford SE, Sockman KW, Maney DL. 2012. Rapid effects of hearing song on catecholaminergic activity in the songbird auditory pathway. PLoS One 7(6): e39388

Matragrano LL , Sanford SE, Sockman KW, Salvante KG, Beaulieu M, Maney DL. 2012. Estradiol-dependent modulation of serotonergic markers in auditory areas of a seasonally breeding songbird. Behavioral Neuroscience 126: 110-122


Beaulieu M , Reichert S, Le Maho Y, Ancel A, Criscuolo F. 2011. Oxidative status and telomere length in a long-lived bird facing a costly reproductive event. Functional Ecology 25: 577-585

Spée M , Marchal L, Lazin D , Le Maho Y, Chastel O, Beaulieu M, Raclot T. 2011. Exogenous corticosterone and nest-abandonment: a study in a long-lived bird, the Adélie penguin. Hormones and Behavior 60: 362-372

Spée M , Marchal L, Thierry AM, Chastel O, Enstipp M, Le Maho Y, Beaulieu M, Raclot T. 2011. Exogenous corticosterone mimics a late fasting stage in captive Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 300: 1241-1249


Beaulieu M , Dervaux A , Thierry AM, Lazin D , Le Maho Y, Ropert-Coudert Y, Spée M, Raclot T, Ancel A. 2010. When sea-ice clock is ahead of Adélie penguins' clock. Functional Ecology 24: 93-102

Beaulieu M, Ropert-Coudert Y, Le Maho Y, Ancel A. 2010. Is abdominal implantation of devices a good alternative to external attachment? A comparative study in Adélie penguins. Journal of Ornithology 151: 579-586

Beaulieu M , Ropert-Coudert Y, Le Maho Y, Ancel A, Criscuolo F. 2010. Foraging in an oxidative environment: relationship between 13C values and oxidative status in Adélie penguins. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 277: 1087-1092. Recommended by ‘Faculty of 1000’

Beaulieu M, Spée M , Lazin D , Ropert-Coudert Y, Le Maho Y, Ancel A, Raclot T. 2010. Ecophysiological response of Adélie penguins facing an experimental increase of breeding constraints. Journal of Experimental Biology 213: 33-39. Highlighted in ‘Inside JEB’ (Journal of Experimental Biology), cover of the journal

Beaulieu M, Thierry AM , Handrich Y, Le Maho Y, Massemin S, Ancel A. 2010. Adverse effects of instrumentation in incubating Adélie penguins. Polar Biology 33: 485-492.

Nesti I, Ropert-Coudert Y, Kato A, Beaulieu M , Focardi S, Olmastroni S. 2010. Diving behaviour of chick-rearing Adélie penguins at Edmonson Point, Ross Sea. Polar Biology 33: 969-978

Spée M , Beaulieu M , Chastel O, Le Maho Y, Raclot T. 2010. Should I stay or should I go? Hormonal control of nest abandonment in a long-lived bird, the Adélie penguin. Hormones and Behavior 58: 762-768.

Yosefi S, Hen G, Rosenblume CI, Cerasale D, Beaulieu M, Criscuolo F, Einat-Friedman M. 2010. Lack of leptin activity in blood samples of Adélie penguin and bar-tailed godwit. Journal of Endocrinology 207: 113-122. Highlighted in ‘Endocrine News’

Zimmer I , Wilson RP, Beaulieu M , Ropert-Coudert Y, Kato A, Ancel A, Plötz J. 2010. Dive efficiency versus depth in foraging emperor penguins. Aquatic Biology 8: 269-277


Ancel A, Beaulieu M. 2009. Practical method of estimating fresh mass of Adélie penguin eggs. Polar Biology 32: 1091-1093

Ancel A, Beaulieu M (co-1st author), Le Maho Y, Gilbert C. 2009. Emperor penguin mates: keeping together in the crowd. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 276: 2163-2169. Highlighted in ‘The New York Times’

Beaulieu M, Raclot T, Dervaux A, Le Maho Y, Ropert-coudert Y, Ancel A 2009 Can a handicapped parent rely on its partner? An experimental study within Adélie penguin pairs. Animal Behaviour 78: 313-320. Highlighted in ‘Wired’

Beaulieu M , Thierry AM, Le Maho Y, Ropert-coudert Y, Ancel A. 2009. Alloparental feeding in Adélie penguins: why is it uncommon? Journal of Ornithology 150: 637-643

Beaulieu M, Thierry AM , Raclot T, Le Maho Y, Ropert-coudert Y, Gachot-Neveu H, Ancel A. 2009. Sex-specific parental strategies according to the sex of offspring in the Adélie penguin. Behavioral Ecology 20: 878-883

Ropert-Coudert Y, Beaulieu M, Hanuise N , Kato A. 2009. Diving into the world of bio-logging. Endangered Species Research 10: 21-27


Zimmer I, Wilson RP, Beaulieu M , Ancel A, Plötz J. 2008. Seeing the light: depth and time restrictions in the foraging capacity of emperor penguins at Pointe Géologie, Antarctica. Aquatic Biology 3: 217-226

Zimmer I, Wilson RP, Gilbert C, Beaulieu M , Ancel A, Plötz J. 2008. Foraging movements of emperor penguins at Pointe Géologie, Antarctica. Polar Biology 31: 229-243

Hearing in Penguins

Penguins are adapted perfectly to a life at land and sea. This popular group of living beings are well known, but there are some lacks of knowledge. The "Hearing in Penguins" is almost unknown, but now scientists want to investigate in this field. This research contains the training of penguins.

Project Description


Deutsche Zoologische Gesellschaft

International Ornithologists' Union

Deutsche Ornithologische Gesellschaft


Stand: September 2021

Journal Number of reviews

J. Exp Biol.


Funct. Ecol.


PLoS One


Physiol. Biochem. Zool.




Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.


Behav. Ecol. Soc., Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Mol. Ecol.


Anim. Behav., Mar. Biol., PeerJ, Sc. Rep.


Antioxidants, Auk, Biol. Conserv., Biol. Lett., Can. J. Zool., Front. Ecol. Evol., J. Ornithol., Naturwissenschaften, Polar Biol.


Acta Chiropt, Anim. Welfare J., Behav. Ecol., BioEssays, Coevolution, Conserv. Physiol., Curr. Zool., Environ. Pollut., Ethology, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., Horm. Behav., Int. J. Biometeorol., J. Anim. Ecol., J. Avian Biol., J. Endocrinol., J. Field Ornithol., J. Comp. Physiol. B, Phys. Res., Molec. Ecol. Res., Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., Proc. R. Soc. B, PNAS, Wildl. Res., Zoo Biol.